The word robot was introduced to the public by the Czech writer Karel Capek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots), published in 1920. The play starts in a factory that makes artificial individuals called robots creatures who can be mistaken for humans – though they’re closer to the modern suggestions of androids. Karel Capek himself didn’t coin the word. He wrote a brief letter in reference to an etymology within the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Capek as its actual originator.
In 1927 the Maschinenmensch (“machine-human”) gynoid humanoid robot (also known as “Parody”, “Futura”, “Robotrix”, or the “Maria impersonator”) was the very first and maybe probably the most memorable depiction of a robot ever to appear on film was played by German actress Brigitte Helm) in Fritz Lang’s film Metropolis.
In 1942 the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov formulated his Three Laws of Robotics and, within the procedure of doing so, coined the word “robotics” (see particulars in “Etymology” section beneath).
In 1948 Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics.
Fully autonomous robots only appeared within the second half with the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Commercial and industrial robots are widespread these days and utilized to carry out jobs much more cheaply, or much more accurately and reliably, than humans. They’re also employed in jobs that are as well dirty, hazardous, or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are broadly used in manufacturing, assembly, packing and packaging, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory study, safety, and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods.